The Constitution of the United States of America

The U.S. Constitution was written at a convention held during 1787. Signed by 39 of the 55 state delegates, it was submitted for ratification in September of that year. The constitution took effect following its ratification by the ninth state in 1788.

In this hypertext version of the constitution provisions that have been amended or otherwise affected by subsequent amendments are linked to the relevant amendments.

Declaration of Independence

The Constitution of the United States of America


We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.


  1. Religion, Speech, Press, Assembly, Petition (1791)
  2. Right to Bear Arms (1791)
  3. Quartering of Troops (1791)
  4. Search and Seizure (1791)
  5. Grand Jury, Double Jeopardy, Self-Incrimination, Due Process (1791)
  6. Criminal Prosecutions - Jury Trial, Right to Confront and to Counsel (1791)
  7. Common Law Suits - Jury Trial (1791)
  8. Excess Bail or Fines, Cruel and Unusual Punishment (1791)
  9. Non-Enumerated Rights (1791)
  10. Rights Reserved to States (1791)
  11. Suits Against a State (1795)
  12. Election of President and Vice-President (1804)
  13. Abolition of Slavery (1865)
  14. Privileges and Immunities, Due Process, Equal Protection, Apportionment of Representatives, Civil War Disqualification and Debt (1868)
  15. Rights Not to Be Denied on Account of Race (1870)
  16. Income Tax (1913)
  17. Election of Senators (1913
  18. Prohibition (1919)
  19. Women's Right to Vote (1920
  20. Presidential Term and Succession (1933)
  21. Repeal of Prohibition (1933)
  22. Two Term Limit on President (1951)
  23. Presidential Vote in D.C. (1961)
  24. Poll Tax (1964)
  25. Presidential Succession (1967)
  26. Right to Vote at Age 18 (1971)
  27. Compensation of Members of Congress (1992)

Creation of World Wide Web version and preparation of table of Articles and Amendments by Peter W. Martin, Legal Information Institute, Cornell Law School. Please send suggestions, notices of errata etc. to: MARTIN at LAW.MAIL.CORNELL.EDU.

Sources: Digital text prepared by Gerald Murphy (Cleveland Free-Net - aa300) and distributed by the Cybercasting Services Division of the National Public Telecomputing Network (NPTN). Cross references to amendments from Encyclopedia Britanica, 15th ed.

Free Spam Protection   Android ORM   Simple Java Magic   JMX using HTTP   Great Eggnog Recipe   Massachusetts Covid Vaccine Sites